Self accommodating shear strain

A group of organisms of the same species, sharing certain hereditary characteristics not typical of the entire species but minor enough not to warrant classification as a separate breed or variety.Resistance to specific antibiotics is a feature of certain strains of bacteria.The extent to which a body is distorted when it is subjected to a deforming force, as when under stress.The distortion can involve a change both in shape and in size.This statement is corroborated by field observations of igneous sills emplaced in shale-carbonate rocks, which exhibit complex brittle-ductile deformation that accommodated the emplacement of the magma (Schofield et al., 2012; Duffield et al., 2016; Spacapan et al., 2017) (Figure 1D).

In addition, because the models assume rheological end-members, they cannot simulate the natural diversity of magma intrusion shapes and magma emplacement mechanisms, and so they are of limited use to predict under which conditions intrusions of contrasting shapes form.

The oil intrusion in the elastic gel is a thin conduit with a sharp tip, like magmatic dykes, whereas the oil intrusion in the viscous gel is rounded, like diapirs.

In addition, the oil intrusion in gels of intermediate properties exhibits complex, hybrid shapes.

Detailed descriptions of the structures and associated mechanisms can be found in Spacapan et al. However, the Earth's crust is neither purely viscous, plastic, nor elastic, but, as stated, visco-elasto-plastic.

Therefore, even if purely viscous diapiric rise, plastic faulting, or elastic hydraulic fracturing may happen, most intrusions are likely to be accommodated by hybrid viscous, plastic, and elastic deformations of the host (Rubin, 1993; Vachon and Hieronymus, 2016; Scheibert et al., 2017).

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Thus they are of limited use to constrain under which conditions intrusions of contrasting shapes form.

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