In 1187 Estonians (Oeselians), Curonians or/and Karelians sacked Sigtuna, which was a major city of Sweden at the time.The society, economy, settlement and culture of the territory of what is in the present-day the country of Estonia is studied mainly through archaeological sources.The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century.
Initially democratic, subsequent to the Great Depression, Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence.
In the early centuries AD, political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia.
Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (Estonian: kihelkond) and the county (Estonian: maakond), which consisted of multiple parishes.
In 1030 Yaroslav the Wise defeated Estonians and established a fort in modern-day Tartu; this foothold lasted until an Estonian tribe, the Sosols, destroyed it in 1061, followed by their raid on Pskov.
Around the 11th century, the Scandinavian Viking era around the Baltic Sea was succeeded by the Baltic Viking era, with seaborne raids by Curonians and by Estonians from the island of Saaremaa, known as Oeselians.
Search for estonian dating:
A parish was led by elders and centred around a hill fort; in some rare cases a parish had multiple forts.