Elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics

Brockhouse, "for the development of neutron spectroscopy," and Clifford G. Taylor, "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics."1989: Norman F.

Shull, "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique."1993: Russell A. Taylor Jr., "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation."1992: Georges Charpak, "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber."1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers."1990: Jerome I. Ramsey, "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks," and Hans G.

Mc Donald for showing the metamorphosis of neutrinos, which revealed that the subatomic particles have mass and opened up a new realm in particle physics.2014: Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura for their invention of an energy-efficient light source: blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs).2013: Peter Higgs of the United Kingdom and François Englert of Belgium, two of the scientists who predicted the existence of the Higgs boson nearly 50 years ago.

[Related: Higgs Boson Physicists Snag Nobel Prize]2012: French physicist Serge Haroche and American physicist David Wineland, for their pioneering research in quantum optics.2011: One half awarded to Saul Perlmutter, the other half jointly to Brian P. Riess, "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae."2010: Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene."2009: Charles K.

After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics".

Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM.

However, the predicted SUSY particles have not been found either because they are too heavy for the present LHC energy and luminosity or Nature has found alternative ways to circumvent the shortcomings of the SM.

According to Alfred Nobel's will, the Nobel Prize in Physics was to go to "the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics." The prize has been awarded every year except for 1916, 1931, 1934, 1940, 19.

Kilby "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit."1999: Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J. Veltman, "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics."1998: Robert B. Phillips, "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."1996: David M. Perl, "for the discovery of the tau lepton," and Frederick Reines, "for the detection of the neutrino."1994: Bertram N.'t Hooft was already immersed in the work that was to win the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics for himself and for his teacher, Martinus Veltman, cited by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics." The Academy credited 't Hooft, 53, and Veltman, 68, for placing particle physics theory on a firmer mathematical foundation, for giving researchers a well-functioning "theoretical machinery" which, among other applications, can be used for predicting the properties of new particles.Those new particles may include the Higgs boson, predicted as the source of mass: the next big prize in particle physics, perhaps the key to a future Nobel Prize.The other half was shared jointly to Barry Barish and Kip Thorne of Caltech.The prize honored the trio's "decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves," according to Their theoretical discoveries opened the door to a weird world where matter can take on strange states.

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